Nová rozvojová banka pro nový svět

NEW YORK – Lídři BRICS (Brazílie, Ruska, Indie, Číny a Jižní Afriky) v závěru svého březnového summitu v Durbanu oznámili záměr zřídit Novou rozvojovou banku zaměřenou na „mobilizaci zdrojů na projekty rozvoje infrastruktury a udržitelného rozvoje v zemích BRICS a dalších rozvíjejících se ekonomikách a rozvojových zemích.“

Význam tohoto rozhodnutí lze stěží přecenit. V prvé řadě se v něm odrážejí obrovské úspěchy hospodářského rozvoje v průběhu posledních čtyř dekád (úhrnný HDP skupiny BRICS dnes převyšuje úhrnný HDP vyspělých zemí v době, kdy byly založeny brettonwoodské instituce) a změna rovnováhy ekonomické moci, která z nich vyplývá. Rozhodnutím se projevuje schopnost a ochota BRICS spolupracovat, ku prospěchu jich samých i celého světa. Rozvíjející se trhy a rozvojové země berou budoucnost do vlastních rukou – v době, kdy se bohaté země prokousávají problémy, jež si samy přivodily.

Nová rozvojová banka je zřetelně potřebná. Rozsáhlé jsou už jen infrastrukturní potřeby ekonomik rozvíjejících se trhů a zemí s nízkými příjmy – 1,4 miliardy lidí je stále bez spolehlivé elektřiny, 900 milionů lidí chybí přístup k čisté vodě a 2,6 miliardy lidí nemá dostatečné hygienické zázemí. Během příštího čtvrtstoletí se přitom podle odhadů dvě miliardy lidí přestěhují do měst. A tvůrci politik musí zajistit, aby investice byly environmentálně udržitelné.

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