Dean Rohrer

Il faut créer des emplois pour la jeunesse du monde arabe !

NEW-YORK – De nombreux facteurs sont à l'origine des révoltes qui secouent le Moyen-Orient : des décennies de corruption et de dictature, une jeunesse de plus en plus instruite qui utilise les techniques de communication modernes, la flambée mondiale des prix de l'alimentation et l'énorme pression démographique qui s'exerce au Moyen-Orient (ainsi qu'en Afrique sub-saharienne et dans la plus grande partie de l'Asie du Sud).

A titre d'exemple, la population égyptienne a plus que doublé sous le régime de Moubarak, passant de 42 à 85 millions d'habitants entre 1980 et 2010. Cette croissance est d'autant plus remarquable que l'Egypte est un pays essentiellement désertique dont la population se concentre le long du Nil. Comme elle ne peut se disperser sur le reste du territoire, sa densité augmente jusqu'à atteindre le point de rupture. Ainsi 20 millions de personnes s'entassent au Caire qui est devenu une agglomération tentaculaire avec des infrastructures inadéquates.

Du fait de cette poussée démographique, la population est très jeune (la moitié des Egyptiens ont moins de 25 ans). Comme des dizaines d'autres pays, l'Egypte, est confrontée à un défi auquel elle ne peut répondre : fournir un emploi productif et correctement rémunéré à sa jeunesse.

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