L’Andin Engagé

MEXICO – L’histoire du rôle de l’intellectuel politiquement engagé est ancienne et omniprésente. Le romancier hispano-français et scénariste Jorge Semprún, récemment décédé, fut pendant de longues années membre du comité central du Parti Communiste Espagnol pour devenir ensuite ministre de la Culture dans le premier gouvernement socialiste espagnol post-Franco. Des dissidents comme Václav Havel ont eu un impact décisif dans la chute des régimes communistes d’Europe de l’est.

Et il y a quelques mois à peine, c’est grâce à un activisme intellectuel français décisif qu’a pu être lancée la tentative jusqu’ici infructueuse de renverser le régime du colonel Mouammar Kadhafi en Libye. Car c’est Bernard-Henry Levy qui est parvenu à convaincre le président français Nicolas Sarkozy de rencontrer les chefs des rebelles libyens, une rencontre dont la conséquence directe fut le rôle majeur assumé par la France pour persuader le Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU et le président Barack Obama de soutenir le principe d’une intervention militaire.

Mais on peut dire que personne n’a mieux exprimé la tradition de l’intellectuel engagé que Jean-Paul Sartre. Son point de vue était assez différent de celui des artistes et des penseurs de la tradition libérale, comme Octavio Paz et Isaiah Berlin. Pour Sartre (et pour nombres de ses contemporains,) les intellectuels ne doivent pas seulement exprimer des positions politiques mais doivent aussi être relativement engagés en politique, se battre pour les causes justes (quoi que cela signifie).

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