安第斯的参政

墨西哥城——投身政治的知识份子在历史上起到过长期而又普遍的作用。不久前刚刚去世的西班牙籍法语小说家兼编剧赫尔豪·塞姆普伦多年来一直担任西班牙共产党中央委员会委员,而后还担任过后佛朗哥时代的首任西班牙社会党政府文化部长。以瓦茨拉夫·哈维尔为代表的持不同政见者在东欧共产党政权垮台期间发挥了决定性的影响。

而且,就在短短几个月前,一位法国知识分子的积极斡旋在发起迄今为止不太成功的打倒利比亚上校穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲的行动中起到了关键作用。因为正是伯纳德·亨利列维说服法国总统尼古拉·萨科奇与利比亚叛军领袖会面,这次会面直接导致法国在说服联合国安理会和美国总统巴拉克·奥巴马支持军事干涉事务中发挥了领导作用。

不过最能为知识分子参政传统做出榜样的也许莫过于让·保罗·萨特。他的观点与奥克塔维奥·帕斯和以赛亚·柏林等遵循自由主义传统的艺术和思想家有很大不同。对于萨特(及很多同龄人)来说,知识分子不仅应该表达政治立场,还应该积极参政,为正确的事业而努力奋斗(不管这意味着什么)。

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