El "desafío" de Turquía

Samuel Huntington nos advirtió sobre el peligro. En su ahora famosa tesis sobre "El choque de las civilizaciones", presentó a Turquía como un ejemplo de un "país quebrado", según él dividido internamente entre Oriente y Occidente, que no está ni en Europa ni en el Oriente Próximo, con una línea de fractura que no corre a lo largo de sus fronteras geográficas, sino que pasa por su interior.

Los recientes bombardeos que han golpeado a Estambul subrayan, una vez más, la importancia de que Turquía supere la línea de fractura de Huntington para emerger firmemente como una democracia próspera, secular y estable. Si tiene éxito, mostrará que no es inevitable que el siglo XIX sea el de un "Choque de Civilizaciones", en que las divisiones de la Guerra Fría sean reemplazadas por nuevos antagonismos religiosos que nos hagan recordar la Edad Media. El mismo concepto de frontera se debe volver a definir en el mundo de hoy: las fronteras que están en las mentes y en la internet son tan importantes como las líneas de dividen el espacio geográfico.

El éxito de Turquía en avanzar hacia una democracia moderna dependerá, por supuesto, de muchos factores, la mayoría de ellos internos y que están relacionados con el liderazgo local y las decisiones que tomen sus actores políticos. Pero los terroristas que atacan de modo tan mortífero comprenden la naturaleza global más que regional de la lucha por el alma turca.

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