Paul Lachine

Dix ans après le 11 septembre

CAMBRIDGE – Les attentats du 11 septembre ont marqué profondément l'opinion publique, tant aux USA que dans le reste du monde. Quelles leçons pouvons-nous en tirer 10 ans après ?

Quiconque prend l'avion ou visite un immeuble de bureaux à Washington peut constater combien le 11 septembre a changé la notion de sécurité aux USA. Mais si l'on s'inquiète davantage du terrorisme et si les restrictions apportées à l'immigration sont plus importantes, l'hystérie de la période qui a suivi le 11 septembre a pratiquement disparu. La création de nouvelles institutions comme le Département de la sécurité du territoire, la Direction du renseignement national et les moyens accrus du Centre de lutte antiterroriste n'ont pas transformé le gouvernement américain, et pour la plupart des citoyens des USA, les libertés individuelles ont été peu affectées. Il n'y a plus eu aucune action terroriste à grande échelle à l'intérieur des USA et la vie quotidienne a repris son cours.

Malgré ce retour apparent à la normale, il ne faut pas se méprendre sur les conséquences à long terme du 11 septembre. Ainsi que je le dis dans mon livre, The Future of Power, à notre époque de l'information globale, le renforcement des acteurs non étatiques constitue l'une des grandes évolutions en matière de pouvoir. Al Quaïda a tué davantage d'Américains le 11 septembre que les Japonais ne l'ont fait lors de l'attaque de Pearl Harbor en 1941. C'est en quelque sorte la privatisation de la guerre.

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