Razones por las que la fiscalidad debe pasar a ser mundial

BERLÍN – Estamos presenciando cambios profundos en la forma como funciona la economía mundial. A consecuencia del ritmo y la intensidad cada vez mayores de la mundialización y la digitalización, cada vez más procesos económicos tienen una dimensión internacional y un número cada vez mayor de empresas están adaptando sus estructuras a los sistemas jurídicos nacionales y extranjeros y a las legislaciones tributarias.

Gracias a los avances técnicos de la economía digital, las empresas pueden prestar sus servicios en los mercados sin tener que estar físicamente presentes en ellos. Al mismo tiempo, las fuentes de ingresos han pasado a ser más móviles. Cada vez se centra más la atención en los activos intangibles y en los ingresos resultantes de inversiones móviles, que se pueden “optimar” fácilmente desde el punto de vista tributario y transferirse al extranjero.

La legislación tributaria no ha seguido el paso de esas novedades. La mayoría de los principios de la asignación tributaria que se aplican actualmente se remontan a una época en la que hacer negocios internacionalmente significaba primordialmente transportar bienes a un país vecino cruzando una frontera, pero las normas que se concibieron para ello en los decenios de 1920 y 1930 ya no son idóneas para la integración internacional actual de los procesos económicos y las estructuras empresariales. Se debe adaptarlas a la realidad económica de los servicios digitales.

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