El fortalecimiento de la vigilancia del FMI

En la economía globalizada de hoy, las políticas económica y financiera de un país pueden resonar mucho más allá de sus fronteras. Ya sea la propagación de la inflación o el impacto de la devaluación de una moneda del otro lado del mundo, las fuerzas económicas globales pueden tener una influencia directa en los medios de vida de cada persona. Ante tales circunstancias, la cooperación internacional es esencial para asegurar la estabilidad y el crecimiento y prevenir las crisis perturbadoras. Pero para que esa cooperación sea efectiva, la comunidad internacional necesita las herramientas adecuadas.

El FMI provee una de las herramientas más importantes. Durante muchos años, el FMI a involucrado a sus países miembros en un proceso conocido como “supervisión” mediante el cual vigila, analiza y lleva a cabo consultas sobre las políticas económicas de cada país –tanto las cambiarias como las políticas internas pertinentes. Estos chequeos regulares ayudan a detectar vulnerabilidades potenciales y a mantener la estabilidad económica. Sin embargo, los retos cada vez más complejos de política que plantea la economía globalizada requieren un examen de este proceso desde una nueva perspectiva.

En junio, el Directorio Ejecutivo del FMI hizo justamente eso, al alcanzar un amplio consenso sobre la actualización de la supervisión para hacerla más específica y efectiva. Esta es una de las reformas más importantes a la labor del Fondo en los treinta años desde que se diseñó el proceso de supervisión. En efecto, es parte de un esfuerzo mucho más amplio que busca fortalecer al FMI y que tendrá consecuencias que se extenderán más allá de la sala de juntas del Fondo.

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