Innovation und Ungleichheit

PARIS – Sind die Gewinne aus dem Wirtschaftswachstum sehr ungleich verteilt, werden soziale Bindungen brüchig. Diejenigen, die an Boden verlieren, insbesondere junge Menschen, reagieren möglicherweise zunächst mit Frustration, die später in Zorn umschlägt. Das war auch einer der Schlüsselfaktoren hinter den Aufständen des Arabischen Frühlings. Und wie die Proteste in Chile, Brasilien, Israel, der Türkei und Indien gezeigt haben, nehmen soziale Spannungen aufgrund von Ungleichheit auf der ganzen Welt zu.

Natürlich ist die Einkommensungleichheit weltweit seit Jahrzehnten angestiegen. Sogar als viele Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländer Millionen Menschen aus extremer Armut befreien konnten, bestand unter der Oberfläche immer die Wahrnehmung, dass Wirtschaftswachstum größere Ungleichheit bedeutete. Doch nun verleihen steigende und anhaltende Arbeitslosigkeit sowie Unterbeschäftigung der zunehmenden Ungleichheit eine neue Dynamik wie die OECD im Juli den G-20 berichtete.

Nach der Finanzkrise des Jahres 2008 beträgt die Jugendarbeitslosigkeit in den Industrieländern durchschnittlich 16 Prozent und übersteigt in manchen europäischen Ländern den Wert von 40 Prozent.

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