Dean Rohrer

Agression d’état et passivité judiciaire

WASHINGTON – Lorsque les états membres de la Cour Pénale Internationale se réuniront ce mois-ci à Kampala en Ouganda pour une conférence de révision du travail de la CPI, ils devront débattre de l’éventualité d’amender les statuts de la CPI pour lui permettre d’ajouter le crime d’agression à ses compétences. Cette question avait été différée lors de l’adoption des statuts en 1998. Ma propre expérience de procureur international, et soutien inconditionnel de la CPI, m’autorise à dire que se serait une grave erreur que d’ajouter le crime d’agression à la juridiction de la cour. Il serait bon de différer à nouveau cette question.

A tout point de vue, la CPI a connu un démarrage remarquable en ralliant un soutien international et en démontrant son potentiel pour confronter les problèmes d’impunité officielle pour les crimes internationaux graves. Mais la cour s’est aussi vu reprocher un excès de politisation, et continue à apprendre, en tant qu’institution, comment exercer efficacement sa juridiction sur le génocide, les crimes contre l’humanité et les crimes de guerre.

Lorsque les membres de la CPI débattront de savoir s’il faut ajouter les crimes d’agression à ses compétences, ils ne devraient pas oublier l’expérience du Tribunal Pénal International pour l’ex-Yougoslavie (TPIY), qui a aussi abordé les questions de génocide, des crimes contre l’humanité et des crimes de guerre.

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