Tsipras Merke Zhang Fan/ZumaPress

Un discurso de esperanza para Grecia

ATENAS – El 6 de septiembre de 1946, el Secretario de Estado de los Estados Unidos James F. Byrnes viajó a Stuttgart para pronunciar su histórico “Discurso de la Esperanza.”, que señaló el cambio de ánimo de los Estados Unidos para con Alemania después de la guerra y dio a una nación hundida una posibilidad de imaginar la recuperación, el crecimiento y un regreso a la normalidad. Siete decenios después, es mi país, Grecia, el que necesita semejante oportunidad.

Hasta el “Discurso de la Esperanza” de Byrnes, los Aliados estaban decididos a convertir “a Alemania en un país de carácter primordialmente agrícola y pastoral”. Ésa era la intención expresa del Plan Morgenthau, concebido por el Secretario del Tesoro de los EE.UU. Henry Monrgenthau Jr. y firmado por los Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña dos años antes, en septiembre de 1944.

De hecho, cuando los EE.UU., la Unión Soviética y el Reino Unido firmaron el Acuerdo de Potsdam en agosto de 1945, convinieron en la “reducción o destrucción de de toda la industria pesada civil con potencial bélico” y en la “reestructuración de la economía alemana para dedicarla a la agricultura y la industria ligera”. En 1946, los Aliados habían reducido la producción de acero de Alemania al 75 por ciento de su nivel anterior a la guerra. La producción automovilística se desplomó hasta el 10 por ciento de la anterior a la guerra. Al final de aquel decenio, se habían destruido 706 instalaciones industriales.

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