Tsipras Merke Zhang Fan/ZumaPress

希腊的希望的演讲

雅典—1946年9月6日,美国国务卿拜恩斯(James F. Byrnes)访问了斯图加特,做了历史性《希望的演讲》(Speech of Hope)。拜恩斯的演讲标志着美国战后对德立场的改变,给了这个堕落之国一个畅想复苏、增长和回归常态的机会。七十年后,我的祖国希腊也需要这样一个机会。

在拜恩斯发表《希望的演讲》之前,同盟国承诺将“德国改变为以农牧业为主的国家。”这是美国财政部长小摩根索(Henry Morgenthau Jr.)在两年前,也就是1944年9月所提出、并由美国和英国联合签署的摩根索计划(Morgenthau Plan)明确表达的意愿。

事实上,1945年8月,当美国、苏联和英国签署《波茨坦协议》时,它们同意“减少或摧毁所有有战争潜力的民用重工业”以及“以农业和轻工业为重点重组德国经济。”1946年,同盟国将德国钢铁产量削减至战前水平的75%。汽车产量骤降至战前水平的10%。20世纪40年代末,706家工业厂房被摧毁。

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