El Sur de Asia en guerra

CAMBRIDGE – El ataque terrorista perpetrado el mes pasado en Mumbai no sólo tenía como objetivos la economía y el sentimiento de seguridad de la India. Su propósito más amplio era destruir la distensión entre la India y Pakistán que se ha estado forjando desde 2004. Los atacantes no se cubrieron los rostros ni utilizaron chalecos explosivos para suicidarse. Su meta no era el anonimato. Deseaban que se les identificara como defensores de una causa. A menos que esta causa se entienda plenamente y que sus causas salgan a la luz en toda la región, este ataque podría ser el principio de la desintegración del Sur de Asia.

Los conflictos regionales, en los que participan todos los Estados de la región y un número creciente de actores no estatales, han producido grandes cantidades de guerreros entrenados en espera del llamado a la gloria. Al interior tanto de la India como de Pakistán, las desigualdades económicas y una percepción de injusticia social han creado un terreno fértil para los enfrentamientos. El uso y abuso del fervor religioso, sea “jihadí” o “fundamentalista hindú” están erosionando las raíces de la armonía comunitaria en el Sur de Asia.

Gran parte de los problemas actuales tienen sus orígenes en Afganistán, cuya tragedia nunca pudo contenerse dentro de sus fronteras designadas. La dinámica de la región cambió cuando los guerreros que luchaban por la libertad afgana en los años ochenta se convirtieron en “mujahedines” mediante un esfuerzo criminal en el que participaron gustosamente tanto Occidente como el mundo musulmán. Pakistán, que siempre se ha sentido inseguro frente a la India, fue el centro de esta transformación. El Occidente creyó que tras la caída del imperio soviético todo estaba solucionado, pero la región –y cada vez más la comunidad global—sigue pagando un precio muy elevado por este desastroso proyecto.

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