La Erosión de la Ley

MADRID – En toda valoración de los acontecimientos y tendencias mundiales de 2014, conceptos como caos, desorden y fragmentación ocuparán de seguro un lugar destacado. Sin embargo, el término "blando" merece figurar, ya que 2014 se ha caracterizado por un aumento significativo de instrumentos "blandos" para hacer frente a problemas globales. Destacan, así, compromisos, decretos, autorregulación, planes de acción conjuntos, e incluso meros apretones de manos. ¿Acaso han llegado a su fin los días en que las relaciones internacionales giraban en torno al tratado como instrumento privilegiado?

No hay duda de que esta evolución hacia un Derecho "blando" también está teniendo lugar en el contexto nacional. En Estados Unidos, el presidente Barack Obama se sirvió de su poder ejecutivo para orillar al Congreso en la reforma migratoria. En el ámbito supranacional, la nueva Comisión Europea traduce su objetivo de "mejor regulación" en una voluntad de disminuir drásticamente las iniciativas legislativas y orientarse, en su lugar, hacia recomendaciones, códigos de conducta y directrices.

No obstante, esta erosión sigue siendo más marcada en el ámbito internacional. Las decisiones del G-20 se caracterizan por su informalidad, y otro buen ejemplo lo constituye la externalización por los legisladores estatales de la elaboración de normas a organismos privados como el Comité de Basilea y el Consejo de Normas Internacionales de Contabilidad.

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