Die Erosion des Rechts

MADRID – In einer Bewertung der weltweiten Ereignisse und Trends des Jahres 2014 wären Begriffe wie Chaos, Regellosigkeit und Fragmentierung wohl prominent vertreten. Allerdings sollte auch der Ausdruck „weich“ nicht fehlen. Tatsächlich war 2014 vom fortgesetzten Aufstieg „weicher“ Instrumente geprägt, um globalen Herausforderungen zu begegnen: Zusagen, Verordnungen, Selbstregulierung, gemeinsame Aktionspläne und Handschlagabkommen. Sind die Zeiten, in denen internationale Beziehungen auf Grundlage des herkömmlichen, formalen Rechts organisiert wurden, vorbei?

Natürlich tritt diese Verlagerung in Richtung „weiches“ Recht auch in innerstaatlichen Konstellationen auf. In den Vereinigten Staaten nützte Präsident Barack Obama seine Exekutivgewalt, um den Kongress in der Frage der Einwanderungsreform zu umgehen. Auf supranationaler Ebene verfolgt die neue Europäische Kommission ihr Ziel einer „besseren Regulierung“, indem sie so wenig wie möglich formale Rechtsetzung anstrebt und sich stattdessen auf Empfehlungen, Verhaltenskodizes und Richtlinien konzentriert.

Am stärksten ausgeprägt bleibt die Erosion des traditionellen Rechts allerdings auf internationaler Ebene. Die Entscheidungen der G-20 weisen zunehmend informellen Charakter auf, während man regelsetzende Befugnisse an private Regulierungsgremien wie den Basler Ausschuss und den International Accounting Standards Board auslagert.

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