L’érosion du droit

MADRID – Dans l’évaluation des tendances et événements mondiaux de l’année 2014, un certain nombre de termes tels que chaos, agitation et fragmentation apparaissent dominants. L’année achevée se caractérise toutefois également par la montée en puissance du concept de la « soft law. » En effet, 2014 a été marquée par le développement continu d’instruments juridiques « souples » dans la résolution des défis mondiaux : engagements verbaux, décrets, autoréglementations, plans d’action communs, et autres accords scellés par une simple poignée de main. Ainsi, doit-on considérer comme révolue l’époque au cours de laquelle les relations internationales s’organisaient autour d’un droit formel et traditionnel ?

De toute évidence, cette réorientation en direction de la « soft law » s’opère également au sein des États. Aux États-Unis, le président Barack Obama a usé de son pouvoir exécutif afin de contourner le Congrès dans le cadre de la réforme sur l’immigration. Au niveau supranational, la nouvelle Commission européenne poursuit l’objectif d’une « meilleure réglementation, » recourant à un minimum de législations, pour privilégier davantage les recommandations, codes de conduite, et autres orientations.

C’est toutefois au sein de l’arène internationale que l’érosion du droit traditionnel demeure la plus prononcée. Les décisions du G20 se font de plus en plus informelles, tandis que l’autorité consistant à légiférer se trouve déléguée à un certain nombre d’organes réglementaires privés, tels que le Comité de Bâle ou encore le Conseil des normes comptables internationales.

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