Pedro Molina

Amérique latine: la social-démocratie n’est pas morte

MONTEVIDEO, URUGUAY – Parmi les différents gouvernements de gauche en Amérique latine, de nouveaux régimes assez tapageusement populistes (Venezuela, Bolivie, Equateur) semblent mobiliser toute l’attention, mais on assiste parallèlement au renforcement d’un courant social-démocrate, historiquement neuf dans cette région. Le Brésil, le Chili et l’Uruguay sont en train de démontrer que la social-démocratie peut marcher.

Ce qui distingue ces gouvernements sociaux-démocrates de leurs homologues populistes, c’est qu’ils sont faits de partis de gauche assimilés à de véritables démocraties multipartites. Ces sociaux-démocrates viennent de la gauche socialiste, révolutionnaire ou réformiste, très unie aux syndicats, mais ils ont fini par accepter l’économie de marché et tendre vers des idées modérées, et ils se disputent aujourd’hui les suffrages centristes. Obéissant simultanément au jeu de l’arène politique et à leur idéologie de gauche, ces gouvernements sociaux-démocrates mettent l’accent à la fois sur la croissance économique et sur l’intégration sociale.

Le potentiel d’innovation de ces gouvernements est fonction des atouts et du pouvoir dont ils disposent politiquement. Le premier gouvernement de gauche de l’histoire uruguayenne a eu de ce point de vue l’avantage, car contrairement à ce qui se passe au Brésil et au Chili, les sociaux-démocrates uruguayens ont gouverné en tant que parti majoritaire. Le Frente Amplio (FA, Front élargi) regroupe presque tous les partis de gauche du pays et il est loyalement soutenu par les syndicats.

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