中东的瓦解

耶路撒冷—北伊拉克的恐怖事件,以及叙利亚内战屠杀的继续,表明中东正在发生结构性变迁。第一次世界大战距今已经过去了近100年,奥斯曼帝国解体后所建立的地区国家体系正在分崩离析。

当代中东版图是由在一战中获胜的西方帝国主义列强英国和法国划定的。一战战火仍在肆虐时,他们就签署了由外交官马克·赛克斯爵士(Sir Mark Sykes)和弗朗索瓦·乔治-皮科(François George-Picot)起草的协定,划定了各自在黎凡特的势力范围。该协定完全不顾该地区的历史、种族和宗教传统和从属关系,也没有考虑本地居民的意愿。

因此,现代伊拉克、叙利亚和黎巴嫩都成了不同的独立实体。它们的边界是人为武断地决定的,没有一个国家历史上以现有边界出现过。(拜英国向阿拉伯人和犹太人所做的互相矛盾的承诺所赐,巴勒斯坦的情况更加复杂。)

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