Sdílení břemene těžkých časů

PRINCETON – Ekonomické chmury, jež obestřely svět vampnbsp;roce 2008, přivedly ledaskoho kampnbsp;otázce, zda byla předchozí zdánlivá prosperita skutečná. Víme, že vampnbsp;zemích tak rozdílných, jako jsou Čína, Indie, Rusko a Spojené státy, prudce vzrostl počet miliardářů. Obecněji řečeno, že horní 1% populace prosperovalo. Jenže mezera mezi bohatými a chudými se rozšířila a příjmy chudých lidí i střední třídy, přinejmenším vampnbsp;USA, stagnovaly.

Není divu, že plány na záchranu bank, pojišťoven, a dokonce automobilek za peníze daňových poplatníků dnes mnozí lidé sledují se skepsí. Je to jen další případ, kdy se politici snaží zajistit, aby se movitá elita, která je podporuje, měla i vampnbsp;těžkých časech líp než všichni ostatní?

Je ovšem chybou se při posuzování přínosů hospodářského růstu zaměřovat na to, zda se rozšířila, nebo zúžila mezera vampnbsp;příjmech bohatých a chudých. Pokud se roční příjem jedince zvýšil zampnbsp;300 na 500 dolarů, může to být dost na to, aby vybředl zampnbsp;krajní bídy, a pro blahobyt dané osoby a její rodiny to bude znamenat obrovskou změnu. Pokud ve stejnou dobu příjem jedince, který vydělává milion dolarů, vzroste o sto tisíc dolarů, příjmová propast se zvětší. Avšak vzhledem kampnbsp;tomu, že sto tisíc dolarů neznamená pro blahobyt člověka, který si vydělává milion dolarů, až takový rozdíl, propast vampnbsp;blahobytu se zúží.

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