Separatismus und Russlands Zukunft

MOSKAU: „Selbstbestimmung“ beherrschte die Weltpolitik zwei Jahrhunderte lang. In der Nachkriegszeit waren Marxisten die entschiedensten Befürworter dieser Theorie und bestanden darauf, sie in die UN-Charta aufzunehmen. Diese Legitimität, die den nationalen Bestrebungen unterworfener Völker verliehen wurde, trug dazu bei, Kolonialismus zu beseitigen. Sollte aber das Prinzip der „Selbstbestimmung“ in der heutigen Welt weiterhin gehegt werden?

Man stelle sich das Chaos vor, falls sich separatistische Energien die Möglichkeit gegeben wird sich ungehindert in einer Welt zu entfalten, in der über 2.000 ethnische Gruppen in mehr als 150 verschiedenen Staaten leben. Heutzutage ist Separatismus allerdings kein Problem, das sich auf individuelle Staaten und Gesellschaften beschränkt; es ist ein Problem der gesamten globalen Gemeinschaft.

Wenn alle Teile einer Nation ein Auseinandergehen akzeptieren, ist es bei der Schaffung eines neuen Nationalstaates natürlich nicht notwendig, dass die Weltgemeinschaft Widerstand zu leisten. Aber wenn eine Partei mit der Teilung einer Nation nicht einverstanden ist, wird Separatismus illegitim. So muss sich die Weltgemeinschaft einseitigen Separationsbemühungen widersetzen, da Separatismus wegen der eng miteinander verwandten Übel Terrorismus und religiöser Extremismus heute viel gefährlicher ist als in der postkolonialen Ära.

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