La democracia de Senegal a prueba

Senegal, país cuya población es musulmana en un 90%, es uno de los países más pacíficos y democráticos del mundo islámico. Esta tranquilidad se debe en parte a los elaborados “rituales de respeto” que se han desarrollado entre el Estado secular y las órdenes sufíes y a las excelentes relaciones entre la mayoría musulmana y la minoría católica en todos los niveles de la sociedad.

Los grupos religiosos y el Estado secular han cooperado en la prevención del SIDA –al grado que sólo alrededor del 1% de la población está infectada con la enfermedad, en comparación con más del 20% en algunos países africanos. El Estado secular, con el apoyo de grupos feministas y algunas organizaciones no gubernamentales transnacionales, prohibió la mutilación de los órganos genitales femeninos en 1999 sin desencadenar protestas masivas de los musulmanes.

Considerado equivocadamente por algunos como un ejemplo de laicité francesa, que podría definirse como “la separación entre la religión y el Estado”, Senegal, si bien alguna vez fue colonia francesa, ha diseñado un modelo muy diferente de “respeto igual y apoyo igual a todas las religiones”. De hecho, el Estado secular en Senegal se parece más al de la India que al de cualquier otro lugar.

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