La búsqueda de la soberanía en Europa e Irak

Dos iniciativas muy diferentes de "creación de naciones" están acaparando la atención mundial: la lucha de EEUU por dar a luz una política viable en Irak, y el ambicioso proyecto de hacer de Europa una verdadera "Unión". Si bien muchos de los problemas relacionados con estos asuntos son distintos, en ambos emprendimientos se observa un gran "déficit democrático". ¿Por qué ocurre, y qué será necesario para superarlo?

Los regímenes soberanos requieren de una identidad política. Para entender esto, reflexionemos acerca de unas cuantas consideraciones que nos recuerdan a Rousseau. Jean-Jacques Rousseau fue el conflictuado genio que primero articuló muchos tópicos básicos de la modernidad, desde la democracia a la autenticidad, con todas sus contradictorias exigencias. Es un gran pensador, y seguir sus consejos siempre ha sido sinónimo de desastre.

Las primeras revoluciones democráticas modernas transfirieron poder de los monarcas a la "nación" o al "pueblo". Pero esto requería inventar un nuevo tipo de agencia colectiva que pudiera decidir y actuar en conjunto, a la que uno pudiera atribuir, a la Rousseau, una "voluntad". Esta nueva entidad requiere de una fuerte cohesión, debido a que la soberanía popular significa más que simplemente la voluntad de la mayoría.

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