Etablir la souveraineté en Europe et en Irak

Deux efforts relativement différents visant à « construire une nation » galvanisent l'attention mondiale : la lutte de l'Amérique pour bâtir un Etat viable en Irak et le projet ambitieux de l'UE pour faire de l'Europe une véritable « Union ». Alors que les nombreux problèmes en jeu sont bien distincts, un « déficit démocratique » menace ces deux entreprises. Pourquoi cette situation et quelles seront les mesures à prendre pour surmonter ce déficit ?

Les régimes souverains requièrent une identité politique. Pour comprendre cette notion, attardons-nous sur quelques considérations rousseauistes. Jean-Jacques Rousseau fut le génie torturé qui a le premier exprimé clairement les nombreux thèmes essentiels de la pensée moderne, de la démocratie à l'authenticité, avec toutes les exigences contradictoires qu'ils renferment. C'était un grand penseur, dont les conseils ont toujours des conséquences catastrophiques s'ils sont suivis.

Les premières révolutions démocratiques modernes ont transféré le pouvoir des monarques à la « nation » ou au « peuple ». Mais cette passation de pouvoir a nécessité un nouveau type d'organisation collective qui pouvait décider et agir conjointement, à laquelle il serait possible d'attribuer, à la Rousseau, une « volonté ». Cette nouvelle entité doit rassembler une cohésion forte car la souveraineté populaire signifie plus que la simple volonté de la majorité.

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