同性恋和新公共哲学

伦敦—伴随人类数千年的集体生存问题已不再是主要的担忧问题,某些西方丰裕社会开始关注人权或个体权利。近几十年来,我们经历了继19世纪思想家穆勒(John Stuart Mill)等人之后的第二次个人主义浪潮。

个体权利被20世纪上半叶的恐怖包围着。但自20世纪60年代以来,此前用在纠正集体错误上的热情越来越多地导向了保卫作为个体的人的权利。事实上,如果说如今西方有什么大众哲学的话,那就是关于人权的哲学。

一个见微知著的例子是英国国会最近围绕承认同性婚姻权利的法案所进行的争论。在英国的这个法案之前,法国于今年春天决定将同性婚姻合法化。事实上,英国在这方面已落于人后:十三个国家已经批准了同性婚姻,而通常颇为保守的现任美国最高法院最近也推翻了明确禁止同性婚姻的1996年《婚姻保护法》和加州一部禁止同性婚姻的法律。

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