Avances y retrocesos de Rusia

Quince años después del colapso y desmembramiento de la Unión Soviética, Rusia todavía se ajusta bien a la caracterización hecha por Winston Churchill de la URRS de Stalin hace casi siete décadas: “un acertijo envuelto en un misterio dentro de un enigma.”

A lo largo de las presidencias de Boris Yeltsin en los años 90 y de Vladimir Putin, Rusia ha abierto sus puertas al comercio internacional, el turismo, los medios de comunicación y la Internet. En agudo contraste con la Unión Soviética, Rusia hoy publica gran cantidad (si bien no siempre fiable) de información económica, social y demográfica.

De entre las varias economías denominadas "de transición", la de Rusia es la segunda mayor del mundo, con un PIB que representa cerca de un quinto del de China, pero con el doble de ingreso per cápita. Sin embargo, no está claro en qué punto del espectro de significado de la palabra "transición" se encuentra Rusia. ¿Se encamina a una asignación de recursos y una toma de decisiones descentralizados e impulsados por el mercado, o centralizados y controlados por el estado? ¿O está oscilando entre ambos?

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