俄国的进展和退步

苏联崩溃并解体后十五年后,俄国依然符合丘吉尔在几乎七十年前对斯大林统治下的苏联的概括,那就是错综复杂,扑朔迷离。

在整个九十年代叶利钦以及现在普京担任总统之际,俄国向国际贸易、投资、旅游业、媒体以及互联网敞开了大门。与苏联迥然不同的是,俄国现在出版数量巨大、但并不一定总是可靠的经济、社会以及人口信息。

在许多被冠以“转型”的经济体中,俄国经济名列第二,其GDP大约相当于中国的五分之一,其人均水平却是中国的两倍。但是,俄国经济处于“转型”的哪一个阶段却不得而知。它是朝向市场驱动、非中央集权的决策和资源分配,还是国家控制、中央集权的决策和资源分配?抑或它是在两者之间摇摆不定?

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