La nueva guerra de Rusia contra la oligarquía

El somnoliento verano político de Moscú ha tenido un agitado despertar con un ataque del Kremlin, iniciado por los asesores más próximos al Presidente Vladimir Putin, contra el principal oligarca de Rusia y hombre más rico del país: Michael Jodorkovski, principal accionista de la compañía petrolera Yukos. Desde luego, no hay nada nuevo en semejantes batallas. Desde el hundimiento de la Unión Soviética los elementos de la estructura del poder político de Rusia han reñido una guerra periódica contra la minoría empresarial del país, ya fuera para refrenar las ambiciones políticas de los oligarcas o para apropiarse de un poco de riqueza para sí mismos.

Ahora la diferencia estriba en que el Presidente Putin había puesto fin, supuestamente, a dicha guerra -que fue un rasgo característico de la época de Yeltsin- al comienzo de su gobierno, cuando ofreció un trato a los oligarcas: conserven su riqueza, no vamos a investigar cómo la han conseguido, pero manténganse alejados de la política. ¿Por qué ha fracasado, al parecer, dicho trato? Tampoco está nada claro por qué Jodorkovski, el oligarca que más ha logrado modernizar sus negocios y darles transparencia, es el blanco del ataque.

Durante el primer mandato de Putin, las ``estructuras de poder'' del Kremlin (ahora dominadas por antiguos compinches de Putin en el KGB de San Petersburgo) no lograron dominar las instituciones económicas y financieras fundamentales. No han conseguido nada de la verdadera riqueza de Rusia. Pero eso no explica por qué han atacado a Jodorkovski y no a otro empresario con un pasado turbio.

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