Clarifier la politique européenne à l’égard de Poutine

PARIS – Dans l’épreuve de force qui se joue entre la Russie et l’Ukraine, les divisions et les faiblesses de la politique européenne se révèlent aussi encourageantes pour le président russe Vladimir Poutine que l’a été l’approche hésitante de l’Amérique sur la question syrienne. Si l’Europe entend agir de manière responsable, il lui faudra définir sur la base de trois concepts clés sa politique à l’égard de la Russie : fermeté, clarté, et volonté d’aboutir à un compromis acceptable.

Sans fermeté, rien n’est possible. L’Europe et les États-Unis ont certes commis des erreurs au lendemain de l’effondrement de l’Union soviétique. Il peut notamment être reproché à l’Amérique d’avoir agi avec arrogance, et d’avoir humilié inutilement la Russie. La chute de l’Union soviétique n’en demeure pas moins le fruit d’une longue série de faux pas, à commencer par l’échec de la Russie pré-soviétique dans l’acceptation de la modernité. Il reste encore aux dirigeants de la Russie post-soviétique à faire face à ces erreurs.

En adoptant une posture agressive et révisionniste, Poutine a commis un faux pas stratégique d’ampleur historique. Le président russe aurait dû prendre pour modèle Pierre le Grand. Son ambition aurait dû consister à associer le futur de la Russie à celui de l’Europe. Au lieu de cela, Poutine a puisé son inspiration chez Nicolas I, le plus réactionnaire des tsars russes du XIXe siècle.

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