死于机器?

伦敦—工业革命伊始,英格兰中部和北部的纺织工人(以织布工为主)发动了一场自发的抵抗运动,砸毁机器、烧毁工厂。他们的怨气在于新出现的机器抢走了他们的工资和饭碗。

叛乱的名字和源头来自内德·勒德(Ned Ludd),据说他是一位纺织学徒工,在1779年的一次“狂躁发作”中砸毁了两台针织机。这个人物很可能是杜撰的。罗伯特·卡尔维特(Robert Calvert)在1985年为勒德写了一曲民谣,开头是这样的:“人们说内德·勒德是个熊孩子/因为他所能做的一切无非是破坏和毁灭。”接着是这样的:“他来到工友们中间,说:‘死于机器’/它们践踏了我们的未来,碾碎了我们的梦想。”

勒德分子之怒在1811—1812年达到了顶峰。警觉的政府派遣大军驻守骚乱区,调动规模比惠灵顿在与拿破仑的半岛战争中动员的数量还要多。一百多名勒德分子被处以绞刑或流放澳大利亚。这些措施重塑了和平。机器获得了胜利:勒德分子只不过是工业革命史的一个注脚。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/6Ua7Jz6/zh;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now