用大脑角度看经济

美国剑桥—在起开创性著作《论智力》(On Intelligence)中,杰夫·霍金斯(Jeff Hawkins)提出了一个新的人脑工作范式。在他看来,大脑不是根据一系列规则操纵信号的图灵机(图灵机是电脑和人工智能的工作原理)。相反,大脑是一个巨大的层级记忆,不停地记录它所感觉到的东西并预测即将发生的东西。

大脑通过寻找最近的知觉输入和存储在其广袤记忆中的前期经验之间的相似性来做出预测。它将当前的大量噪音中的碎片化声音与已知的歌曲相匹配,或将戴着面具的人脸与你的孩子相匹配。这一观点类似于自动完成的谷歌搜索功能——不停地根据你已经输入过的内容猜测你下一次输入什么。

要想理解这一机制中的层级性,想象一下,你可以在看到几个字母后便猜测单词;在看到几个单词后,你可以预测出句子甚至段落的意思。层级性让你能够理解含义,不管信息是通过阅读还是聆听进入你的大脑的。因此,大脑是一部归纳机器,根据寻找诸多不同层次的现在和过去的相似性推测未来。

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