Russie : La vaine réécriture de l'histoire économique post-communiste

Il y a dix ans, la Douma, le parlement russe, tentait de destituer le président Boris Eltsine. C'était le début d'une crise qui allait durer sept mois, jusqu'à ce qu'Eltsine ordonne aux tanks de faire feu sur la Douma. Ayant ainsi affirmé son pouvoir, il allait fixer les orientations politiques de la Russie. Mais a-t-il fait de bons choix dans le domaine économique ?

A partir de 1991, le passage au capitalisme était supposé apporter une prospérité jamais connue jusque là. Mais il en est advenu autrement. Au moment de la crise du rouble en août 1998, la production avait chuté presque de 50% et le nombre de pauvres était passé de 2% à plus de 40%.

Depuis cette époque, la Russie a connu un redressement spectaculaire ; néanmoins le PIB reste inférieur de 30% à ce qu'il était en 1990. Avec un taux de croissance annuel de 4%, il lui faudra encore dix ans pour retrouver la situation économique qui était la sienne au moment de l'effondrement du communisme.

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