Jak oživit jihokorejský zázrak

SOUL – Nastupující jihokorejská prezidentka Pak Kun-hje přebírá zemi, která je globálním vzorem hospodářského rozvoje. Jelikož však ekonomika zpomaluje, stává se vzorem, který je třeba oživit.

Takzvaný „zázrak na řece Hangang“ se uchytil po reformách, jež započal Pak Čong-hui, zesnulý otec prezidentky Pak a vládce země po většinu 60. a 70. let. Měřítkem jihokorejského úspěchu je skutečnost, že se stala první zemí, která zvládla proměnu z příjemce pomoci OECD na jejího dárce, přičemž dnešní HDP na hlavu převyšuje 30 tisíc dolarů (ve smyslu parity kupní síly).

Recept na růst, který byl dlouho základem jihokorejského úspěchu, – určitá forma státem řízeného kapitalismu, který se zaměřuje na exportem taženou výrobu – však už mnoha Jihokorejcům neprospívá. Během posledních 20 let se sice téměř ztrojnásobil HDP, ale vzhledem k tomu, že reálné mzdy se zvyšovaly méně než polovičním tempem, přerušila se vazba růstu na osud obyčejných občanů.

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