Margaret Scott

Repenser la réduction de la pauvreté

NEW YORK – L’Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture annonçait l’année dernière que le nombre de personnes souffrant de famine dans le monde avait augmenté depuis dix ans. En 2008, la Banque Mondiale avait     annoncé un recul significatif du nombre de pauvres jusqu’à 2005. Mais si la pauvreté se définit principalement en terme des revenus financiers nécessaires pour éviter la faim, comment peut-on réconcilier ces deux annonces ?

Selon le fameux critère du ‘tant de dollar par jour’ de la Banque Mondiale pour définir le seuil de pauvreté, fixé en 2008 à 1,25 dollar par jour en prix de 2005, 1,4 milliard de personnes vivent encore dans la pauvreté ; ce chiffre, qui était de 1,9 milliard en 1981 est donc en diminution. Cependant, même si la Chine a largement contribué à cette diminution, il n’en reste pas moins que la planète comptait au moins 100 millions de pauvres supplémentaires, sans compter la Chine, en 2005 par rapport à 1981.

Dans l’Afrique sub-saharienne et dans certaines parties de l’Asie, la pauvreté et la faim demeurent toujours aussi élevés. Les agences internationales estiment que plus de 100 millions de personnes sont tombées dans la pauvreté en conséquence de la hausse des prix de l’alimentation en 2007 et 2008 et la crise financière et économique aura contribué à appauvrir 200 millions de personnes supplémentaires en 2008-2009. La relance de l’emploi freinée par ce déclin économique reste un défi majeur pour la réduction de la pauvreté dans les années à venir.

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