Comment détruire la paysannerie mondiale de manière responsable

BRUXELLES – La Banque mondiale, l’Organisation des Nations unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO), le Fonds international pour le développement de l’agriculture (FIDA) et le secrétariat de la Conférence des Nations unies pour le commerce et le développement (CNUCED) ont récemment proposé sept Principes pour un investissement responsable dans l’agriculture. Ces principes visent à s’assurer que ces énormes placements débouchent sur un résultat “gagnant-gagnant”, servant tant les investisseurs que les communautés directement impliquées. Si ces principes sont pétris de bonnes intentions, ils sont cependant totalement inadéquats.

Depuis plusieurs années, les investisseurs (privés et publics) acquièrent et louent des millions d’hectares de terres agricoles dans le monde afin d’assurer l’approvisionnement de leur pays en nourriture, en matières premières et en biocarburants ou de toucher des subventions pour stockage du carbone sur leur site. Les investisseurs occidentaux, y compris les banques de Wall Street et fonds d’investissement, voient aujourd’hui le foncier comme une valeur refuge dans un contexte de tourmente financière.

Le phénomène a pris une ampleur considérable. Depuis 2006, entre 15 et 20 millions d’hectares de surfaces agricoles – soit l’équivalent du total des terres arables de France – ont fait l’objet de négociations de la part d’investisseurs étrangers.

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