Syrian refugee and her baby. World Bank Photo Collection/Flickr

Agonie und Exodus

BRÜSSEL – Der tragische Exodus aus dem kriegsgeschüttelten Syrien und seinen Nachbarländern stellt die in der Welt waltende Vernunft und unser Mitgefühl auf die Probe. Seit 2011 sind etwa vier Millionen Menschen aus Syrien geflohen, und Millionen weitere sind Vertriebene im eigenen Land. Die große Mehrheit der Flüchtlinge ist von Syriens Nachbarländern Jordanien, Libanon und Türkei aufgenommen worden. Doch die Krise nimmt kein Ende und Hunderttausende Flüchtlinge haben sich auf den Weg nach Europa gemacht; die meisten von ihnen nehmen den extrem gefährlichen Weg über das Meer.

Die Art und den Umfang dieses Exodus haben alle früher getroffenen rechtlichen und politischen Annahmen über Migration hinfällig werden lassen. Früher waren wirtschaftliche Gründe das Hauptmotiv für Migration. Die Wirtschaftsmigration löste eine Debatte zwischen Liberalen aus, die am Grundsatz der Freizügigkeit von Arbeitskräften festhielten und denen, die den freien Personenverkehr zwischen Ländern einschränken wollten, um Arbeitsplätze, die Kultur und/oder den politischen Zusammenhalt zu schützen.

Während die Zahl der Nationalstaaten auf der Welt immer größer und die Besiedlung immer dichter wurde, siegte die Einschränkung über die Freizügigkeit. Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg setzten sich Kontrollen der Einwanderung durch. Alle Länder entwickelten Bevölkerungspolitiken.

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