Syrian refugee and her baby. World Bank Photo Collection/Flickr

الفجيعة والخروج

بروكسل ــ إن النزوح الجماعي المأساوي من سوريا التي مزقتها الحرب والدول المحيطة يشكل تحدياً قوياً لعقل العالم وقدرته على التعاطف إنسانيا. فمنذ عام 2011، فَرَّ نحو أربعة ملايين شخص من سوريا، ونزح ملايين آخرين داخليا. وحاليا، تؤوي الدول المجاورة لسوريا ــ الأردن، ولبنان، وتركيا ــ الغالبية العظمى من النازحين إلى الخارج. ولكن مع تفاقم المأساة، توجه مئات الآلاف من اللاجئين إلى أوروبا، وسلك أغلبهم الطرق البحرية الشديدة الخطورة.

وبسبب طبيعة وحجم هذا النزوح الجماعي تصبح جميع الافتراضات القانونية والسياسية السابقة حول الهجرة عتيقة وباطلة. ففي الماضي، كان الدافع الرئيسي للهجرة اقتصادي. وكانت المناقشة التي أثارتها الهجرة الاقتصادية تدور بين الليبراليين، الذين يتبنون مبدأ الانتقال الحر للعمالة، وأولئك الذين أرادوا فرض القيود على الحركة بين البلدان من أجل حماية الوظائف، والثقافة، و/أو التماسك السياسي.

ومع ازدحام العالم بالدول القومية، وشغل أي حيز فارغ بالناس، كانت الغَلَبة للقيود على حرية الحركة. وأصبحت الضوابط المفروضة على الهجرة واسعة النطاق بعد الحرب العالمية الأولى. وسعت كل الدول إلى تبني سياسات سكانية.

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