George Soros Niccolò Caranti/Wikimedia

Una oleada de fondos para los refugiados

MÚNICH – La conferencia de donantes para los refugiados sirios, celebrada el 4 de febrero en Londres, fue escenario de importantes avances. Pero queda mucho por hacer. La comunidad internacional todavía subestima enormemente lo que se necesita para ayudar a los refugiados, tanto dentro como fuera de las fronteras de la Unión Europea. Para hacer frente a esta crisis y aprovechar mejor la (en su mayor parte no utilizada) calificación crediticia AAA de la UE, se necesita un cambio de paradigma.

En vez de ponernos a juntar año tras año fondos insuficientes, es hora de descargar una “oleada” de fondos de una sola vez. Una suma importante de dinero, invertida toda junta al principio, sería mucho más eficaz que la misma suma repartida a lo largo de varios años. Nos permitiría encarar mejor las consecuencias más peligrosas de la crisis (entre ellas, el rechazo a los inmigrantes en los países receptores y la desesperanza y marginalización entre los refugiados) y ayudaría a transformar la dinámica económica, política y social, pasando de la xenofobia y la indiferencia a una actitud más constructiva que beneficie a los refugiados y a los países receptores por igual.

El modelo que proponemos se usó muchas veces para financiar campañas de vacunación. El Instrumento Financiero Internacional para la Vacunación (IFFIm, por sus siglas en inglés), que toma prestado a cuenta de futuros aportes estatales a los programas de inmunización, recaudó en pocos años miles de millones de dólares con el objetivo de acelerar el éxito de las campañas de vacunación. A largo plazo, es más eficaz que invertir la misma cantidad de dinero en cuotas anuales. El IFFIm es un precedente elocuente que puede aplicarse a la crisis actual.

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