Refugee boat in Mediterranean

Une meilleure année pour les migrants ?

DUBLIN – Deux enseignements majeurs se dégagent de la crise des migrations en Méditerranée. Tout d'abord, l'Europe et la communauté internationale appliquent un système cruellement inadapté à la protection des migrants les plus vulnérables. Deuxièmement, face à l'inefficacité de ce système, les acteurs populistes ne cessent d'exploiter les peurs afin de gagner en soutien politique, mettant à mal des sociétés libérales et tolérantes dont la construction a nécessité quelque 70 ans d'efforts acharnés.   

C'est la raison pour laquelle il est indispensable que soit entreprise cette année une démarche véritablement active aux niveaux européen et mondial. En septembre prochain, le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies Ban Ki-moon réunira un sommet extraordinaire destiné à bâtir un solide système mondial de protection des migrants et des réfugiés les plus démunis. Espérons que les États seront prêts à s'engager de manière concrète et durable.  

Ce nécessaire engagement a fait cruellement défaut au cours de l'année 2015. En effet, la communauté internationale aurait été en mesure de limiter la gravité de la crise de l'an dernier si elle avait fourni l'appui même le plus modeste aux pays situés en première ligne – Turquie, Liban et Jordanie – qui abritent ensemble pas moins de quatre millions de réfugiés. Avec seulement 10 milliards € environ, ces pays auraient davantage été en capacité de loger, nourrir et fournir une éducation aux réfugiés, atténuant ainsi la tentation d’une fuite vers l'Europe. Cet échec pourrait coûter rien qu'à l'Allemagne jusqu'à 21 milliards € chaque année dans les temps à venir.

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