L’ultima svolta dello stato guardiano notturno

HONG KONG – Troppo spesso il dibattito sul rapporto tra stato e mercato li presenta come forze opposte intrappolate in una lotta senza senso. Ma quest’approccio semplicistico finisce per trasformare rapidamente una discussione costruttiva in un capro espiatorio della battaglia ideologica tra sostenitori dello stato e sostenitori del capitalismo di mercato.

Una visione più efficace considererebbe lo stato ed il mercato come due facce della stessa medaglia, legate insieme dal sistema dei diritti di proprietà (PRI). Lo stato interagisce con il mercato (il regno del privato e dello scambio volontario dei diritti di proprietà) principalmente in tre modalità.

Innanzitutto, lo stato conduce le transazioni con il settore privato attraverso il fisco e la spesa. In secondo luogo, stabilisce e mantiene il sistema dei diritti di proprietà che comprende tutte le istituzioni necessarie per delineare, scambiare, mettere a punto e proteggere (attraverso l’implementazione delle leggi e dei contratti) i diritti di proprietà. Tra queste istituzioni ci sono la magistratura e l’arbitrariato che svolgono non solo la funzione di giudicare le dispute sui diritti di proprietà, ma anche quella di gestire gli abusi amministrativi e le dispute tra il settore pubblico e privato. Infine, lo stato entra in competizione con il settore privato attraverso le aziende statali e dei servizi pubblici.

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