Das Ende des Nachtwächterstaats

HONGKONG – Nur allzu oft werden Staat und Markt in Debatten als gegensätzliche Kräfte gesehen, die in einem Nullsummenspiel gefangen sind. Aber durch diesen zu sehr vereinfachenden Ansatz werden konstruktive Diskussionen schnell zu einem ideologischen Kampf zwischen den Befürwortern des Staates und denjenigen des Marktkapitalismus.

Konstruktiver wäre es, Staat und Markt als zwei Seiten derselben Medaille zu sehen, die durch die Infrastruktur der Eigentumsrechte (IdE) verbunden sind. Der Staat interagiert mit dem Markt – dem Bereich des privaten, freiwilligen Austauschs von Eigentumsrechten – hauptsächlich auf drei Arten:

Erstens erhebt der Staat Steuern und tätigt Ausgaben. Zweitens stellt er die IdE bereit und kümmert sich um ihre Einhaltung. Dies umfasst alle Institutionen für die Festlegung, den Austausch, die Abwägung und den Schutz (die Vollstreckung von Gesetzen und Verträgen) der Eigentumsrechte. Unter diesen Institutionen befinden sich die juristischen und vermittelnden Gremien, die nicht nur für die Rechtsprechung über Eigentumsstreitigkeiten, sondern auch zur Lösung administrativer Streitigkeiten zwischen dem privaten und dem öffentlichen Sektor verantwortlich sind. Und schließlich steht der Staat in Form staatlicher Unternehmen und Versorgungseinrichtungen mit dem privaten Sektor im Wettbewerb.

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