政府应为市场构筑产权基础设施

香港—关于政府和市场关系的争论往往像两股方向相反的作用力,陷入零和博弈。这一过于简化的观点常导致建设性的讨论迅速成为国家资本主义和市场资本主义支持者之间的意识形态之争。

更有效的分析框架应该是将政府和市场视为一枚硬币的两面,并通过产权基础设施(property-rights infrastructure,PRI)联系在一起。政府通过三种主要途径与市场(自由交换私有产权的场所)互动。

首先,政府通过税收和公共支出与私人部门交易。其次,政府建设并维护产权基础设施,包括产权界定、交换、调整和保护(即通过法律和契约的强制实施)所需要的一切制度。这些制度包括司法和仲裁,其职能不仅是裁决产权纠纷,还包括纠正行政权力滥用并解决公私部门之间的纠纷。最后,政府通过国有企业和公用事业与私人企业竞争。

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