tanks in Turkey Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

La reforma de los servicios de seguridad árabes

WASHINGTON, DC – La experiencia en todo el mundo árabe muestra que para la reforma de los servicios de seguridad, no sirven los métodos tecnocráticos. Básicamente, una mejora de la formación y la capacidad operativa de los servicios con énfasis excluyente en lo técnico, sin una correspondiente mejora de su control público, puede ser fácilmente frustrada por coaliciones antirreformistas, con lo que se perpetuarán patrones de conducta regresivos.

Esto vale especialmente en entornos sociopolíticos polarizados, cuyos ejemplos más obvios hoy son Egipto, Irak, Libia y Yemen (por no hablar de Bahréin y Siria). Pero incluso en países donde hay cierto grado de pluralismo político y no hay enfrentamiento civil o conflicto armado interno (como Líbano y Túnez, y potencialmente la Autoridad Palestina y Argelia), una metodología de cambios incrementales solamente tendrá éxito parcial. Para la creación de un servicio de seguridad plenamente moderno y sujeto a sus mandantes, no bastan los retoques tecnocráticos.

Cualquiera sea el marco legal formal, la presencia de barreras a la realización de auditorías efectivas impide supervisar los flujos financieros de la policía y las agencias de seguridad internas. Además, es común que estas instituciones absorban cursos formales de capacitación anticorrupción y después sigan actuando como siempre.

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