tanks in Turkey Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

Реформа арабской госбезопасности

ВАШИНГТОН – Как показывает опыт стран арабского мира, в деле реформирования органов безопасности технократических подходов недостаточно. Если упрощать, то технократический акцент на модернизации навыков и операционных возможностей на фоне отсутствия улучшений в управлении службами безопасности может привести к лёгкой победе антиреформаторских сил и возврату к прежним моделям поведения.

Это особенно верно в условиях политической и социальной поляризации, как это совершенно очевидно на примере Египта, Ирака, Ливии и Йемена, не говоря уже о Бахрейне и Сирии. Но даже в тех странах, где имеется некая степень политического плюрализма и где нет гражданских распрей или внутренних вооружённых конфликтов (например, в Ливане и Тунисе, а потенциально в Палестинской администрации и Алжире), постепенность подходов позволяет достичь лишь частичного успеха. Для создания полностью модернизированной и подотчётной службы безопасности требуются нечто большее, чем технократический ремонт.

Какими бы ни были формальные правовые основания, барьеры на пути эффективного аудита мешают мониторингу финансовых потоков вокруг и внутри полиции и агентств внутренней безопасности. Более того, подобные госучреждения часто способны усвоить формальные антикоррупционные правила, а затем продолжить вести дела как обычно.

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