tanks in Turkey Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

Reformasi Bidang Keamanan di Negara-negara Arab

WASHINGTON, DC – Pengalaman negara-negara Arab menunjukkan bahwa bicara mengenai reformasi sektor keamanan, pendekatan-pendekatan teknokratis saja tidak cukup. Sederhananya, fokus teknokratis pada peningkatan keterampilan dan kemampuan operasional, di tengah lemahnya tata kelola atau tidak berfungsinya badan keamanan, dapat dengan mudah dikalahkan oleh koalisi anti-perubahan yang mengakibatkan pola perilaku regresif yang terus-menerus.

Hal ini ditemukan di kondisi politik dan sosial yang terpolarisasi – contoh paling nyata saat ini terlihat di Mesir, Irak, Libya, dan Yaman, belum lagi Bahrain dan Suriah. Namun tetap saja, bahkan di negara-negara yang memiliki pluralisme politik dan tidak mengalami pergolakan sipil atau konflik bersenjata dalam negeri – seperti Lebanon dan Tunisia, mungkin juga Otoritas Palestina dan Aljazair – pendekatan bertahap hanya mampu mencapai keberhasilan yang parsial. Pembentukan badan keamanan yang modern dan akuntabel memerlukan lebih dari sekedar sikap teknokratis.

Terlepas dari kerangka hukum formal, terdapat sejumlah hambatan dalam pemeriksaan efektif yang menghalangi diterapkannya pengawasan aliran dana dari dan untuk kepolisian dan badan keamanan dalam negeri. Selain itu, lembaga-lembaga tersebut umumnya mampu menyerap pelatihan anti-korupsi secara formal walaupun tetap saja tidak mengubah perilaku mereka.

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