La reforma del complejo industrial militar de Rusia

Durante la administración del Presidente Vladimir Putin, Rusia ha iniciado un programa extenso para reestructurar su industria de defensa que se ha contraído dramáticamente desde la era soviética. Este proceso ha tenido algunos avances, pero persisten los problemas estructurales fundamentales que conducen a que Rusia exporte cantidades importantes de armas avanzadas a regiones proclives al conflicto, lo que ocasiona que el Kremlin entre en desacuerdo con Europa, Estados Unidos y otros países.

En los últimos seis años, la administración Putin ha promovido la nacionalización y consolidación de compañías de defensa del sector privado para convertirlas en holdings grandes, de composición vertical y controlados por el gobierno. En noviembre de 2000, Putin aprobó la creación de una agencia exportadora de armas única supervisada por el gobierno, Rosoboronexport, para acabar con la competencia autodestructiva que se había desarrollado entre las empresas exportadoras de armas más importantes del país. Hace unos meses, la agencia obtuvo el derecho exclusivo para vender armas rusas a países extranjeros.

En este momento, el gobierno promueve la creación de una institución similar en el sector de la aviación, la nueva United Aircraft Building Corporation (Corporación Unida de Construcción de Aeronaves) que incluye a fabricantes importantes de aeronaves de ala fija del Estado y privados. Quienes propusieron la fusión creen que mejorará la eficiencia de la industria aeronáutica rusa y, al disminuir los costos, hará que los aviones rusos sean más atractivos para los compradores extranjeros.

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