Les enseignements de Singapour pour le président Xi

NEW YORK – La Chine vit aujourd’hui une étape cruciale, comme ce fut le cas en 1978, lorsque les réformes de marché amorcées par Deng Xiaoping ouvrirent au monde l’économie du pays – ou encore au début des années 1990, lorsque Deng réaffirma au travers de sa célèbre « tournée dans le sud » la marche de la Chine vers le développement.

Pendant toute cette période, les exemples et les leçons tirés d’autres pays ont joué un rôle important. Il semble que Deng ait été considérablement influencé par une visite passée à Singapour, qui connaissait déjà croissance et prospérité depuis des décennies. La compréhension des réussites et des ratés des États extérieurs a toujours constitué une composante importante de l’approche de la Chine dans la formulation de sa stratégie de croissance.

De même que Singapour, le Japon, la Corée du Sud et Taïwan, dans leurs premières décennies de croissance moderne, la Chine est gouvernée par un parti unique. Le Parti d’action populaire (PAP) de Singapour reste prédominant, bien qu’il semble que les choses changent. Quant aux autres pays, ils se sont orientés vers la démocratie multipartite au cours de leur transition depuis le statut de pays à revenu intermédiaire. La Chine elle aussi a aujourd’hui atteint cette dernière étape critique de la longue marche vers le statut de pays développé en termes de structure économique et de niveaux de revenus.

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