As novas fronteiras da lealdade

LONDRES – Atravessamos um período delicado para os Estados, e ainda mais delicado para os cidadãos. O Estado-nação, o provedor clássico da segurança e do bem-estar essencial em troca da lealdade dos cidadãos, está sob ameaça, quer a nível interno quer enquanto unidade fundamental das relações internacionais.

Novos tipos de lealdade e de associações desafiam o papel tradicional do Estado. Alguns são de natureza geográfica. Só na Europa, há pelo menos 40 que aspiram ser como a Escócia, tendo em vista alguma forma de separação dos países em que se encontram actualmente. Lealdades de outra natureza têm por base outro tipo de identidades congéneres - não apenas religiosas ou étnicas, mas assentes igualmente em interesses partilhados nos domínios comercial, político e outros. Actualmente, o número de pessoas que apoiam as ONG é muito superior ao número de cidadãos que são membros de partidos políticos.

Em resumo, as nossas alianças, em especial no Ocidente, raramente se afiguraram mais divididas do que nos dias de hoje. O Prémio Nobel da economia, Amartya Sen, argumentou que é possível aprender a conviver com estas múltiplas identidades e até mesmo prosperar com a diversidade de cidadania e lealdade que elas nos permitem.

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