从科索沃复苏

    伦敦--科索沃最近单方面宣布独立让人们回想到过去。我在1999年3月曾经公开反对北约以保护科索沃人免于塞族屠杀的名义攻击塞尔维亚。在当时,我是英国上议院影子政府反对派前排成员。当时的保守党领导人黑格立即把我驱逐到了后排。这就结束了我(年轻)的政治生涯。从那时以来,我就在考虑我是对是错。

    我出于两个原因反对军事行动。首先,我认为军事行动或许给当地人带来好处,但是却会损害当时人们所理解的国家关系规则。联合国宪章的目的是防止跨越边境使用武力,除了自卫以及安理会授权的执法措施。人权、民主以及民族自决并非发动战争的可以令人接受的合法理由。

    第二,我认为存在人权遭到极大践踏、人们不得不不顾国际法受到道义驱使采取行动的情形,但是科索沃并不属于这种情况。我认为这一干预表面上要防止“现实的人道主义灾难”很大程度上是虚构的。我进一步说,采用非军事手段解决科索沃的人道主义问题远远没有被用尽,而且用基辛格的话来说,1999年2月到3月间举行的让布里耶谈判无果而终,“只不过是开战的借口而已”。

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