Примирение прав меньшинств и государственного суверенитета

Когда десять лет назад закончился конфликт между Востоком и Западом, многие надеялись, что демократические изменения в Восточной Европе будут способствовать мирному разрешению существовавших по всему миру противоречий между требованиями прав человека с одной стороны и требованиями государственного суверенитета с другой. Вместо этого, этнические конфликты множились, сотрясая многие страны Восточной Европы и Азии. Создается впечатление, что этнических прав и прав меньшинств добиваются только при помощи оружия, как, например, в Чечне или Восточном Тиморе.

Почему это так? Требования «прав человека», неоднократно выдвигаемые с 1989 года, делают упор на правах индивидуумов в их борьбе с произволом государственных институтов. Свобода мысли, свобода печати, свобода собраний - вот те права, на которые напирали чаще всего, возможно потому, что они отражали долгую борьбу за восстановление свободы личности, задыхавшейся при коммунизме.

Но права человека, понимаемые лишь в контексте свободы для индивидуумов, недостаточны для разрешения этнических конфликтов, потому что этнические сообщества и группы не могут использовать механизмы законов и соглашений по правам человека, для того чтобы обеспечить эффективное рассмотрение своих притязаний. Ведь именно государства и являются, как правило, теми силами, которые подавляют их требования. В результате этого возникает чувство неудовлетворенности, которое приводит к применению силы со стороны меньшинств и этнических групп.

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