Angela Merkel and Recep Tayyip Erdogan Schicke/Getty Images

الواقعية من أجل أوروبا وتركيا

برلين ــ لطالما اتسمت العلاقات بين أوروبا وتركيا بالتناقض العميق. ففي حين كانت علاقات التعاون الأمني (وخاصة أثناء الحرب الباردة) والعلاقات الاقتصادية قوية، ظلت الأسس الحيوية للديمقراطية ــ حقوق الإنسان، وحرية الصحافة، وحقوق الأقليات، والقضاء المستقل القادر على فرض سيادة القانون ــ ضعيفة في تركيا. وقد قَسَّم التاريخ أيضا الجانبين، كما يشهد الجدال الدائر حول الاعتراف بالإبادة الجماعية للأرمن خلال الحرب العالمية الأولى.

وبعد تولي حزب العدالة والتنمية الحاكم السلطة بقيادة عبد الله غول في عام 2002 ثم في وقت لاحق بقيادة رجب طيب أردوغان، بدا الأمر وكأن هذه الصراعات قد حُلَّت. وخلال سنواته الأولى في الحكم، كان حزب العدالة والتنمية يريد لتركيا الانضمام إلى الاتحاد الأوروبي  وتحديث اقتصادها. وقد تم تنفيذ إصلاحات حقيقية ــ وخاصة في مناطق مثل القضاء، الذي يشكل ضرورة أساسية لإحراز التقدم نحو عضوية الاتحاد الأوروبي.

بيد أن أردوغان كان حريصا على الدوام على إبقاء خيار "العثمانية الجديدة" مفتوحا، والذي من شأنه أن يوجه تركيا نحو الشرق الأوسط والعالم الإسلامي. وبات هذا واضحا جليا في عام 2007، عندما أغلقت المستشارة الألمانية أنجيلا ميركل والرئيس الفرنسي آنذاك نيكولا ساركوزي باب عضوية الاتحاد الأوروبي فعليا في وجه تركيا، وكان في ذلك إ     هانة صريحة لأردوغان.

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